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adobe flash 5 and above flash versions shortcuts


A - Arrow/Cursor
T - Text Tool
P - Pencil
I - Ink Bottle
B - Paint Brush
U - Paint Bucket
E - Eraser
D - Dropper
M - Magnifier
L - Lasso


F5 - Add frame
Shift F5 - Delete Frame
F6 - Add Key Frame
F7 - Add Blank Key Frame
F8 - Make Symbol


Enter - Play
Command/Control 0 (zero) - Rewind
< - Previous Frame
> - Next Frame
Home - Goto First Scene
End - Goto Last Scene
Page Up - Goto Previous Scene
Page Down - Goto Next Scene


Command/Control R - Import Image/Sound/etc...
Command/Control Shift R - Export to .swf/.spl/.gif/etc...
Command/Control Shift O - Open as Library


Command/Control 1 - View movie at 100% size
Command/Control 2 - Show Frame
Command/Control 3 - Show All


Command/Control L - Show/Hide Library
Command/Control M - Modify Movie Properties
Command/Control E - Toggle between Edit Movie& Edit Symbol Mode
Command/Control Shift L - Show/Hide Timeline
Command/Control Shift W - Show/Hide Work Area

Modifying and editing

Command/Control G - Group
Command/Control U - Ungroup
Command/Control B - Break Apart
Command/Control Shift V - Paste in Place
Command/Control D - Duplicate
Command/Control A - Select All
Command/Control Shift A - Deselect All
Command/Control Shift O - Optimize Curves
Command/Control K - Align Window
Command/Control Shift S - Scale and Rotate
Command/Control Shift Z - Remove Transform
Command/Control Up Arrow - Move Ahead
Command/Control Down Arrow - Move Behind
Command/Control Shift Up Arrow - Bring to Front
Command/Control Shift Down Arrow - Send to Back
Command/Control T - Modify Font
Command/Control Shift T - Modify Paragraph
Command/Control left Arrow - Narrower Letter Spacing (kerning)
Command/Control right Arrow - wider Letter Spacing (kerning)

Other tricks

With the arrow cursor:

Control + Click and Drag - Duplicates a shape
By hitting the control key first (Macintosh & Windows) and THEN clicking and dragging on a selected shape or group of shapes, you will create a duplicate of those shapes at the spot where you release the mouse button.

Command/Control Clicking a keyframe to move frame
Command/Control clicking a frame in the timeline switches the cursor to a slider, and allows you to click and drag that frame to a new place in the timeline within that same layer. This is a very useful function for editing the positioning of tweens, etc. in the timeline.

With the magnifier tool:

Control + Click - Toggles to the opposite magnifier.
If the + magnifier (zoom in) is active, and you hit Control while clicking, you will switch to the - magnifier and actually zoom OUT.

With the dropper tool:

Shift + Click - Select a color for both fill and outline tools
Clicking a red fill will do the same, giving you the Bucket tool, and switching fill colors to red. But the outline tool colors are not changed. Clicking on text switches the text tool to that color, and gives you the text tool. Shift clicking with the dropper makes the color you click on active for ALL tools, and doesn't automatically switch you to any tool. It leaves the dropper active.

This is one of the least well known short cuts in Flash, and is the ONLY way to use the dropper on an outline for example, and then be able to switch to the fill tool and have that color automatically active already.

best php codes free download

seo steps

On Page SEO

1. Title Tags

2. Meta Tags(Keywords and Description)

3. Alt Tags to images

4. Use H1 tags in css

5. Sitemap

6. Internal Linking and Spell Ckeck in Content

Off Page Seo

1. Submit into free web directories

(Search in google free online web directories)

2. Submt Into Social Bookmarks


3. Check in W3 validator ( CSS & XHTML)

( -

4. Varify site in Webmaster tools

(Search in google webmaster tools )

5. page and Image Optimization


6. Check Page Rank


7. Website Speed Test


8. Google Analytics

(Website Traffic)

9. Create Blog (Optional)

10. Submit into Forums (Optional)

11. Google Adsense (Optional)


Whenever we develop websites , using tables the main table in the site
must not be greater than 1024 pixels.
In some cases we need to take the background image in the webiste layout i.e home or innerpage, i.e total background image by hiding all the elements in the layout, at that moment we need to take minimum
1400 pixels width backgound image we need to take like
In this case we need to place the logo on the background image,
we need to take that image as a png 24 , format, inorder to avoid the
patch image


The fonts supprted in the web are
If we find other than this fonts in the psd layout we need to take it as a


In case of placing the menus using li,ul
in css we need to place
display:inline and

dream weaver menu


html flash

In case of placing the flash in the banner, we get browser compatability issue, in that case by selecting the flash, give it as a

html div

in case of developing sites using div’s, we no need to give height.
because most of php sites developed using div’s the content is not constant, so we need to mention height…

right click disable code

 write the below code before ending the body tag
starting javascript

var message=”Function Disabled!”;

function clickIE4(){
if (event.button==2){
return false;

function clickNS4(e){
if (document.layers||document.getElementById&&!document.all){
if (e.which==2||e.which==3){
return false;

if (document.layers){
else if (document.all&&!document.getElementById){

document.oncontextmenu=new Function(“alert(message);return false”)

ending javascript

table less forms, css codes and , javascrip codes

gothrough the

The following are used to css free codes and div codes using css

The following are used to any of the javascript free codes

different layouts

fixed layouts : here layout is fixed , if the system resolution is changed
the layout is fixed as you design and the remaining part is empty…

Liquid layouts : here layout is formed according to the system resolution,
if you can see in any of the system , we see the site as it is…
nothing can change in any of the resolution…

flash banner in home page

after placing the flash banner in ( index page or any other page0 ,if the (index page or any other page) having menu with dropdown, in that case we don’t get menu correctly, our dropdown is becomes hide, i.e move behind the flash banner…
to avoid this—->
by selecting the flash banner in the dreamweaver, in the design view ,
select page properties,then write —>
wmode in one box, then click tab, then write transparent
i.e wmode is transparent in the flash……

so here we get output clearly….

image as png24 IN IE6

image transparent to avoid browser compatability
in some cases , we need to slice the image as png24, by hiding all background images in the psd , and slice the image according to our requirement…then save it it as a by selecting alt+ctrl+shift+s
then save our images…
we follow the above steps in case of our imagea and the background image not matching…
inorder to make it as a transparent image we use png24 image,
still we get browser compatability, in the ie6……..
for that we use the javascript code and one image
the following is the javascript code…
var clear=”images/clear.gif” //path to clear.gif

pngfix=function(){var els=document.getElementsByTagName(’*');var ip=/\.png/i;var i=els.length;while(i– >0){var el=els[i];var;if(el.src&&el.src.match(ip)&&!es.filter){es.height=el.height;es.width=el.width;es.filter=
(src=’”+el.src+”‘,sizingMethod=’crop’)”;el.src=clear;}else{var elb=el.currentStyle.backgroundImage;if(elb.match(ip)){var path=elb.split(’”‘);var rep=(el.currentStyle.backgroundRepeat==’no-repeat’)?’crop’:’scale’;es.filter=”progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.AlphaImageLoader
(src=’”+path[1]+”‘,sizingMethod=’”+rep+”‘)”;es.height=el.clientHeight+’px’;es.backgroundImage=’none’;var elkids=el.getElementsByTagName(’*');if (elkids){var j=elkids.length;if(el.currentStyle.position!=”absolute”)es.position=’static’;while (j– >0)if(!elkids[j].style.position)elkids[j].style.position=”relative”;}}}}}

save the above javascript as 3.js and place it in the js folder

and the image here


save the above image and place it in the images folder

and include the javascript file in to your html pages……as
script language=javascript src=js/3.js

and include the above statement in each page of ur html project…

good sites


photoshop advanced shortcuts


* Ctrl + Shift + N (New Layer) — This will bring up the new layer dialog box and place a new layer on top of the active layer.
* Ctrl + Alt + Shift + N (New Layer No Dialog) — This command skips the dialog box and just places a new layer on top of the active layer.
* Ctrl + Shift + C (Copy Merged) — This works basically like the copy command, except you get a merged copy of the composite image sent to the clipboard. This command only works if you’ve made a selection on the image first (use Ctrl+A to select all), otherwise you’ll get a copy of nothing. This is useful if you want to duplicate what you see on the screen into another image file or even another layer.
* Ctrl + Alt + Shift + E (Stamp Visible) — This is actually one of my favorite commands. First, I’ll create a new empty layer on top of the stack. Then I’ll select that new layer and use this command. It does basically the same thing as the copy merged command, except it places the copy right into the new layer. I use this for creating layer blends, sharpening, and any other type of editing that can’t be done non-destructively.
* Ctrl + Alt + Shift + K (Show Keyboard Commands) — If you forget any of these commands, or if you want to check on other commands, use this to bring up the help dialog on keyboard shortcuts.

photoshop shortcuts

Essential Photoshop Shortcut Commands


* F (Cycle Screen Modes) — Switch between normal screen, full screen with task bar without title bar, and full screen with black background. Works great when used in conjunction with Tab to hide toolbars — maximum working space, no distractions.
* X (Switch Colors) — Swap your foreground and background colors. Very handy when working with masks.
* D (Default Colors) — Reset your foreground and background colors to black and white, respectively.
* Ctrl + ‘+’/’-’ (Zoom In/Out) — Quickly zoom in or out without changing your current tool.
* Alt + Mouse Scroll (Zoom In/Out) — Fastest way to zoom — scroll up to zoom in, and scroll down to zoom out.
* Ctrl + Alt + Z (Step Back) — Ctrl + Z is OK if you catch a mistake immediately after it happens, but this command will continue to march its way up the history tree.
* Ctrl + S (Save) — You should get in the habit of just hitting this combo on impulse about every 5 to 10 minutes. Also use Ctrl + Alt + Shift + S to bring up the save for web dialog.
* Ctrl + Alt + Shift + N (New Layer No Dialog) — Quickly insert a new empty layer on top of the active layer. Get rid of the Alt key to bring up the new layer dialog for more options.


* Shift + Click Mask (Enable/Disable Layer Mask) — When working with masks it’s typically done in small increments. Disabling the mask allows you to check the results of your masking against the original.
* Alt + Click Mask (Toggle Mask Visibility) — Doing this will bring up the mask as a grayscale image so you can see what you’re working with. Useful if you have areas that need to be filled in or smoothed out.
* Ctrl + Click Mask (Load Mask As Selection) — Selects the white part of the mask (grays are partially selected). Useful if you want to duplicate a mask or it’s inverse. Using Ctrl + Click on a layer without a mask will select the non-transparent pixels in that layer.
* Ctrl + J (New Layer Via Copy) — Can be used to duplicate the active layer into a new layer. If a selection is made, this command will only copy the selected area into the new layer.
* Caps Lock (Toggle Cross Hairs) — Switch between the standard tool icon and a set of precision cross hairs. Useful for spot-on selections.
* Shift + Backspace (Fill Dialog) — Good time saver when working with masks. Also, use the Ctrl + Backspace to fill with background color and Alt + Backspace to fill with foreground color.
* Ctrl + H (Hide Selection Lines) — When working with selections, use this command to hide the “marching ants” while keeping the selection.
* Ctrl + I (Invert Selection) — Select the opposite of what is already selected. Also a good tool when working with mask creation.
* Ctrl + D (Deselect) — After working with your selection, use this combo to discard it.
* Side Note: When working with selections, they can be applied to a layer as a mask simply by adding a new layer mask using the little box-with-a-circle-inside icon at the bottom of the layer palette. This also works with adjustment layers by automatically applying the selection to the mask.


* Ctrl + G (Group Layers) — This command groups selected layers in the layer tree. Adding Shift to this combo will ungroup layers when the grouped layer is selected.
* Ctrl + A (Select All) — Creates a selection around the entire canvas.
* Ctrl + T (Free Transform) — Brings up the free transform tool for resizing, rotating, and skewing the image using a dragable outline.
* Ctrl + E (Merge Layers) — Merges selected layer with the layer directly below it. If multiple layers are selected, only those will be merged.
* Crtl + Shift + E (Merge Visible) — Merges all visible layers into one. Not recommended practice in typical photo editing because you’ll lose layer information.
* Ctrl + Alt + E (Stamp Down) — Merges all selected layers into one new layer. Add the Shift modifier to this combo and you’ll get a new layer containing a merged representation of all visible layers (handy for sharpening adjustments)
* Ctrl + Alt + Shift + R (Rotate Arbitrary Dialog) — bring up the rotate dialog to straighten out your horizon… but it’s not typically used since we all take perfect photos, right?
* Side Note: Adobe Camera Raw (ACR) has the ability to straighten photos before they ever make it into Photoshop. When straightening, you draw a line you’d like as your horizontal and ACR will take care of the rotation and crop for you.
* CTRL + ALT + DEL (Kill Photoshop) — Quite useful when Photoshop takes your computer hostage. Must have used the Ctrl + S command prior to the hostile takeover in order to prevent mental breakdown.

internal scrolls

open os keyboard


Desktop icons appear highlightned

Start> Run> type: sysdm.cpl then hit OK.
Click on Advanced tab> Visual Effects tab, check the box:
Use drop shadows for icon labels on the desktop then OK, Apply and OK

or check

right click on the Desktop and select Properties. Then click Desktop tab> Customize Desktop button> Web tab> make sure that nothing is checked in the Web pages: windows and that Lock web items is not check..

Restart Windows without restarting the Computer

When you click on the SHUTDOWN button, make sure to simultaneous press SHIFT Button. If you hold the Shift key down while clicking on SHUTDOWN button, you computer would restart without restarting the Computer.
This is equivalent to term "HOT REBOOT"

Some of the important cmd prompt commands :

Copy and keep it handy..

ADDUSERS --Add or list users to/from a CSV file
ARP -- Address Resolution Protocol
ASSOC -- Change file extension associations
ASSOCIAT --One step file association
AT -- Schedule a command to run at a later time
ATTRIB --Change file attributes

BOOTCFG --Edit Windows boot settings
BROWSTAT --Get domain, browser and PDC info

CACLS -- Change file permissions
CALL --Call one batch program from another
CD --Change Directory - move to a specific Folder
CHANGE-- Change Terminal Server Session properties
CHKDSK -- Check Disk - check and repair disk problems
CHKNTFS -- Check the NTFS file system
CHOICE --Accept keyboard input to a batch file
CIPHER --Encrypt or Decrypt files/folders
CleanMgr ---Automated cleanup of Temp files, recycle bin
CLEARMEM ---Clear memory leaks
CLIP ---Copy STDIN to the Windows clipboard.
CLS ---Clear the screen
CLUSTER ---Windows Clustering
CMD ---Start a new CMD shell
COLOR --- Change colors of the CMD window
COMP ---Compare the contents of two files or sets of files
COMPACT --- Compress files or folders on an NTFS partition
COMPRESS ---Compress individual files on an NTFS partition
CON2PRT ---Connect or disconnect a Printer
CONVERT ---Convert a FAT drive to NTFS.
COPY ---Copy one or more files to another location
CSCcmd ---Client-side caching (Offline Files)
CSVDE ---Import or Export Active Directory data

DATE --- Display or set the date
Dcomcnfg DCOM ---Configuration Utility
DEFRAG ---Defragment hard drive
DEL ---Delete one or more files
DELPROF--- Delete NT user profiles
DELTREE ---Delete a folder and all subfolders
DevCon ---Device Manager Command Line Utility
DIR ---Display a list of files and folders
DIRUSE --- Display disk usage
DISKCOMP--- Compare the contents of two floppy disks
DISKCOPY ---Copy the contents of one floppy disk to another
DNSSTAT ---DNS Statistics
DOSKEY --- Edit command line, recall commands, and create macros
DSADD ---Add user (computer, group..) to active directory
DSQUERY--- List items in active directory
DSMOD ---Modify user (computer, group..) in active directory

ECHO--- Display message on screen
ENDLOCAL--- End localisation of environment changes in a batch file
ERASE ---Delete one or more files
EXIT ---Quit the current script/routine and set an errorlevel.
EXPAND --- Uncompress files
EXTRACT--- Uncompress CAB files

FC--- Compare two files
FDISK--- Disk Format and partition
FIND ---Search for a text string in a file
FINDSTR--- Search for strings in files
FOR /F ---Loop command: against a set of files
FOR /F ---Loop command: against the results of another command
FOR ---Loop command: all options Files, Directory, List
FORFILES ---Batch process multiple files
FORMAT ---Format a disk
FREEDISK ---Check free disk space (in bytes)
FSUTIL --- File and Volume utilities
FTP --- File Transfer Protocol
FTYPE--- Display or modify file types used in file extension associations

GLOBAL --- Display membership of global groups
GOTO ---Direct a batch program to jump to a labelled line

HELP--- Online Help
HFNETCHK--- Network Security Hotfix Checker

IF--- Conditionally perform a command
IFMEMBER Is the current user in an NT Workgroup

KILL Remove a program from memory

LABEL --- Edit a disk label
LOCAL --- Display membership of local groups
LOGEVENT--- Write text to the NT event viewer.
LOGOFF --- Log a user off
LOGTIME --- Log the date and time in a file

MAPISEND ---Send email from the command line
MEM --- Display memory usage
MD --- Create new folders
MKLINK --- Create a symbolic link (linkd)
MODE ---Configure a system device
MORE --- Display output, one screen at a time
MOUNTVOL ----Manage a volume mount point
MOVE --- Move files from one folder to another
MOVEUSER--- Move a user from one domain to another
MSG ---Send a message
MSIEXEC --- Microsoft Windows Installer
MSINFO ---Windows NT diagnostics
MSTSC --- Terminal Server Connection (Remote Desktop Protocol)
MUNGE --- Find and Replace text within file(s)
MV --- Copy in-use files

NET --- Manage network resources
NETDOM --- Domain Manager
NETSH ---Configure network protocols
NETSVC ---Command-line Service Controller
NBTSTAT --- Display networking statistics (NetBIOS over TCP/IP)
NETSTAT --- Display networking statistics (TCP/IP)
NOW --- Display the current Date and Time
NSLOOKUP--- Name server lookup
NTBACKUP ---Backup folders to tape
NTRIGHTS E---dit user account rights

PATH --- Display or set a search path for executable files
PATHPING ---Trace route plus network latency and packet loss
PAUSE --- Suspend processing of a batch file and display a message
PERMS --- Show permissions for a user
PERFMON ---Performance Monitor
PING ---Test a network connection
POPD --- Restore the previous value of the current directory saved by PUSHD
PORTQRY--- Display the status of ports and services
PRINT --- Print a text file
PRNCNFG --- Display, configure or rename a printer
PRNMNGR --- Add, delete, list printers set the default printer
PROMPT --- Change the command prompt
PsExec --- Execute process remotely
PsFile --- Show files opened remotely
PsGetSid --- Display the SID of a computer or a user
PsInfo ---List information about a system
PsKill --- Kill processes by name or process ID
PsList --- List detailed information about processes
PsLoggedOn ---Who's logged on (locally or via resource sharing)
PsLogList ---Event log records
PsPasswd --- Change account password
PsService --- View and control services
PsShutdown ---Shutdown or reboot a computer
PsSuspend ---Suspend processes
PUSHD --- Save and then change the current directory

QGREP --- Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern.

RASDIAL ---Manage RAS connections
RASPHONE ---Manage RAS connections
RECOVER --- Recover a damaged file from a defective disk.
REG --- Registry: Read, Set, Export, Delete keys and values
REGEDIT --- Import or export registry settings
REGSVR32--- Register or unregister a DLL
REGINI ---Change Registry Permissions
REM --- Record comments (remarks) in a batch file
REN --- Rename a file or files.
REPLACE --- Replace or update one file with another
RD ---Delete folder(s) [remove dir]
RDISK ---Create a Recovery Disk
RMTSHARE ---Share a folder or a printer
ROBOCOPY--- Robust File and Folder Copy
ROUTE --- Manipulate network routing tables
RUNAS --- Execute a program under a different user account
RUNDLL32--- Run a DLL command (add/remove print connections)

SC --- Service Control
SCHTASKS--- Create or Edit Scheduled Tasks
SCLIST --- Display NT Services
ScriptIt Control ---GUI applications
SET --- Display, set, or remove environment variables
SETLOCAL--- Control the visibility of environment variables
SETX ---Set environment variables permanently
SHARE --- List or edit a file share or print share
SHIFT --- Shift the position of replaceable parameters in a batch file
SHORTCUT ---Create a windows shortcut (.LNK file)
SHOWGRPS ---List the NT Workgroups a user has joined
SHOWMBRS ---List the Users who are members of a Workgroup
SHUTDOWN ---Shutdown the computer
SLEEP --- Wait for x seconds
SOON --- Schedule a command to run in the near future
SORT --- Sort input
START --- Start a separate window to run a specified program or command
SU ---Switch User
SUBINACL ---Edit file and folder Permissions, Ownership and Domain
SUBST --- Associate a path with a drive letter
SYSTEMINFO--- List system configuration
TASKLIST--- List running applications and services
TIME ---Display or set the system time
TIMEOUT--- Delay processing of a batch file
TITLE --- Set the window title for a CMD.EXE session
TOUCH --- Change file timestamps
TRACERT --- Trace route to a remote host
TREE --- Graphical display of folder structure
TYPE --- Display the contents of a text file
USRSTAT--- List domain usernames and last login
VER ---Display version information
VERIFY --- Verify that files have been saved
VOL --- Display a disk label
WHERE --- Locate and display files in a directory tree
WHOAMI --- Output the current UserName and domain
WINDIFF --- Compare the contents of two files or sets of files
WINMSD --- Windows system diagnostics
WINMSDP--- Windows system diagnostics II
WMIC ---WMI Commands
XCACLS --- Change file permissions
XCOPY--- Copy files and folders

Installing xp in 10 minute

Here is a gr8 secret that we can bypass the 39 minute of time while we are installing windows xp.

We all know that after loading the file or copying the file from the boot disk to temporary space the system requires a first time reboot.

Now if we press shift+f10 then the task manager will open and there we will find that a process is running named setup.exe

now our task is to make the priority of this process maxm by right clicking on that.

We are done.

Find ur xp installed in 10 min with tolerance 2 min

Hide your Hard Disk Drives | Hide Important data from other USERS

When you need to secure your important data from other users, there are so many choice over there like folder protect,hide folder and much more. But imagine if your data size is more than 100 GB then it is not easy to burn it on CD or protect it. So don't worry friends, I am posting a trick by using this trick you can save your full drive by hiding it from other users. You can hide your drives without any Registry Edit.

1. Log on as Administrator

2. Click on Start button then click on Run > Type CMD

3.Now type diskpart at the command prompt and wait for 5 seconds to appear diskpart> utility.

4.To show the list of volume, type list volume

command after the diskpart> prompt, this command will show you all system drives detail.

5.Now Select the volume that you want to hide for example

If you want to hide F drive then first type select volume 2 (in this case) and hit enter button

6.After selecting volume, type Remove letter F (in this case) to hide F drive.

7. DONE. Now you hide your drive verify go to My Computer and check drives

8.But next time, when you want to unhide the F drive, just type assign letter F command after loading volume 2.

Install Xp From Dos

If XP will not install from the CD or if you have a new drive with no operating system on
it yet try these:

Install Windows XP from the hard drive with Windows 98 already installed:

Boot Windows 98
Insert the XP CD into your CD reader
Explore Windows XP through My Computer
Copy i386 folder to C:\
Go into C:\i386 folder and double click on winnt32.exe to launch the setup from the hard drive

Install Windows XP from DOS (ie. no OS on a new hard drive):

Boot with a Windows 98 Start Up disk

Insert the Windows 98 CD into the CD reader

Run smartdrv.exe from the Win98 directory on the windows 98 CD (file caching)

Type cd.. to back up to the root directory

Insert Windows XP CD into the CD reader

Copy the i386 folder to C:\

Go into C:\i386 folder on C: and type winnt.exe to launch the setup from the hard drive.

Five one line steps to disable the rightclick on Desktop

To eliminate the right click on the desktop:

run command by selecting and then choose run and then

1. type Regedit
2. Go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Explorer
3. Add a DWORD and give it a name of NoViewContextMenu
4. Give it a value of 1
5. Reboot

Your Home Page Never Being Changed

Some websites illegally modify your registry editor and set their website as default home page, for stop this,

1. Right-click on the Internet Explorer icon on your desktop and select "Properties".

2. In the "Target" box you will see "C:\Program Files\Internet


3. Now by adding the URL of the site to the end of this it overrides any
Homepage setting in internet options:

"C:\Program Files\Internet Explorer\IEXPLORE.EXE"

Create shortcut for removing pendrive

Rather than clicking on the task bar and then safely removing the pendrive you can eaily do so creating a shortcut:

1)Create shortcut on your desktop by right click and selecting new shortcut from the menu.

2)Type "RunDll32.exe shell32.dll,Control_RunDLL hotplug.dll" click next and then finish.

shortcut is created and now you can assign a shortcut key to it.

just right click on it and select properties-> click on shortcut tab -> assign a shortcut key to it(it will take clrt + alt by default)

eg: if you press 1 shortcut will be ctrl+alt+1

Here are some Windows XP shortcut keys

General keyboard shortcuts

* CTRL+C (Copy)
* CTRL+X (Cut)
* CTRL+V (Paste)
* CTRL+Z (Undo)
* DELETE (Delete)
* SHIFT+DELETE (Delete the selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin)
* CTRL while dragging an item (Copy the selected item)
* CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item (Create a shortcut to the selected item)
* F2 key (Rename the selected item)
* CTRL+RIGHT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word)
* CTRL+LEFT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word)
* CTRL+DOWN ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph)
* CTRL+UP ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph)
* CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Highlight a block of text)
* SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text in a document)
* CTRL+A (Select all)
* F3 key (Search for a file or a folder)
* ALT+ENTER (View the properties for the selected item)
* ALT+F4 (Close the active item, or quit the active program)
* ALT+ENTER (Display the properties of the selected object)
* ALT+SPACEBAR (Open the shortcut menu for the active window)
* CTRL+F4 (Close the active document in programs that enable you to have multiple documents open simultaneously)
* ALT+TAB (Switch between the open items)
* ALT+ESC (Cycle through items in the order that they had been opened)
* F6 key (Cycle through the screen elements in a window or on the desktop)
* F4 key (Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
* SHIFT+F10 (Display the shortcut menu for the selected item)
* ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the System menu for the active window)
* CTRL+ESC (Display the Start menu)
* ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name (Display the corresponding menu)
* Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu (Perform the corresponding command)
* F10 key (Activate the menu bar in the active program)
* RIGHT ARROW (Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu)
* LEFT ARROW (Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu)
* F5 key (Update the active window)
* BACKSPACE (View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
* ESC (Cancel the current task)
* SHIFT when you insert a CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive (Prevent the CD-ROM from automatically playing)
* CTRL+SHIFT+ESC (Open Task Manager)

Dialog box keyboard shortcuts

If you press SHIFT+F8 in extended selection list boxes, you enable extended selection mode. In this mode, you can use an arrow key to move a cursor without changing the selection. You can press CTRL+SPACEBAR or SHIFT+SPACEBAR to adjust the selection. To cancel extended selection mode, press SHIFT+F8 again. Extended selection mode cancels itself when you move the focus to another control.

* CTRL+TAB (Move forward through the tabs)
* CTRL+SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the tabs)
* TAB (Move forward through the options)
* SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the options)
* ALT+Underlined letter (Perform the corresponding command or select the corresponding option)
* ENTER (Perform the command for the active option or button)
* SPACEBAR (Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box)
* Arrow keys (Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons)
* F1 key (Display Help)
* F4 key (Display the items in the active list)
* BACKSPACE (Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box)

Microsoft natural keyboard shortcuts

* Windows Logo (Display or hide the Start menu)
* Windows Logo+BREAK (Display the System Properties dialog box)
* Windows Logo+D (Display the desktop)
* Windows Logo+M (Minimize all of the windows)
* Windows Logo+SHIFT+M (Restore the minimized windows)
* Windows Logo+E (Open My Computer)
* Windows Logo+F (Search for a file or a folder)
* CTRL+Windows Logo+F (Search for computers)
* Windows Logo+F1 (Display Windows Help)
* Windows Logo+ L (Lock the keyboard)
* Windows Logo+R (Open the Run dialog box)
* Windows Logo+U (Open Utility Manager)

Accessibility keyboard shortcuts

* Right SHIFT for eight seconds (Switch FilterKeys either on or off)
* Left ALT+left SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN (Switch High Contrast either on or off)
* Left ALT+left SHIFT+NUM LOCK (Switch the MouseKeys either on or off)
* SHIFT five times (Switch the StickyKeys either on or off)
* NUM LOCK for five seconds (Switch the ToggleKeys either on or off)
* Windows Logo +U (Open Utility Manager)

Windows Explorer keyboard shortcuts

* END (Display the bottom of the active window)
* HOME (Display the top of the active window)
* NUM LOCK+Asterisk sign (*) (Display all of the subfolders that are under the selected folder)
* NUM LOCK+Plus sign (+) (Display the contents of the selected folder)
* NUM LOCK+Minus sign (-) (Collapse the selected folder)
* LEFT ARROW (Collapse the current selection if it is expanded, or select the parent folder)
* RIGHT ARROW (Display the current selection if it is collapsed, or select the first subfolder)

Shortcut keys for Character Map

After you double-click a character on the grid of characters, you can move through the grid by using the keyboard shortcuts:

* RIGHT ARROW (Move to the right or to the beginning of the next line)
* LEFT ARROW (Move to the left or to the end of the previous line)
* UP ARROW (Move up one row)
* DOWN ARROW (Move down one row)
* PAGE UP (Move up one screen at a time)
* PAGE DOWN (Move down one screen at a time)
* HOME (Move to the beginning of the line)
* END (Move to the end of the line)
* CTRL+HOME (Move to the first character)
* CTRL+END (Move to the last character)
* SPACEBAR (Switch between Enlarged and Normal mode when a character is selected)

Microsoft Management Console (MMC) main window keyboard shortcuts

* CTRL+O (Open a saved console)
* CTRL+N (Open a new console)
* CTRL+S (Save the open console)
* CTRL+M (Add or remove a console item)
* CTRL+W (Open a new window)
* F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)
* ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the MMC window menu)
* ALT+F4 (Close the console)
* ALT+A (Display the Action menu)
* ALT+V (Display the View menu)
* ALT+F (Display the File menu)
* ALT+O (Display the Favorites menu)

MMC console window keyboard shortcuts

* CTRL+P (Print the current page or active pane)
* ALT+Minus sign (-) (Display the window menu for the active console window)
* SHIFT+F10 (Display the Action shortcut menu for the selected item)
* F1 key (Open the Help topic, if any, for the selected item)
* F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)
* CTRL+F10 (Maximize the active console window)
* CTRL+F5 (Restore the active console window)
* ALT+ENTER (Display the Properties dialog box, if any, for the selected item)
* F2 key (Rename the selected item)
* CTRL+F4 (Close the active console window. When a console has only one console window, this shortcut closes the console)

Remote desktop connection navigation

* CTRL+ALT+END (Open the Microsoft Windows NT Security dialog box)
* ALT+PAGE UP (Switch between programs from left to right)
* ALT+PAGE DOWN (Switch between programs from right to left)
* ALT+INSERT (Cycle through the programs in most recently used order)
* ALT+HOME (Display the Start menu)
* CTRL+ALT+BREAK (Switch the client computer between a window and a full screen)
* ALT+DELETE (Display the Windows menu)
* CTRL+ALT+Minus sign (-) (Place a snapshot of the entire client window area on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing ALT+PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)
* CTRL+ALT+Plus sign (+) (Place a snapshot of the active window in the client on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)

Microsoft Internet Explorer navigation

* CTRL+B (Open the Organize Favorites dialog box)
* CTRL+E (Open the Search bar)
* CTRL+F (Start the Find utility)
* CTRL+H (Open the History bar)
* CTRL+I (Open the Favorites bar)
* CTRL+L (Open the Open dialog box)
* CTRL+N (Start another instance of the browser with the same Web address)
* CTRL+O (Open the Open dialog box, the same as CTRL+L)
* CTRL+P (Open the Print dialog box)
* CTRL+R (Update the current Web page)
* CTRL+W (Close the current window)

Knowing who hacked u???

Open dos command,go to -(Start/Run/type "command" without inverted commas and hit enter),& in the MSDOS prompt,type:
netstat -a
(make sure you include the space in between the "t" and the "-a").

This command will show u the host name of the lamer and ofcorse urz also ..ur host name will be under local address and his wud be under foreign address.. note any suspicious name and every numbr u c aftr the host name under foreign address which is new and suspicious there(numbers are ports but i consider u totally unaware).
After ur done,now type
Netstat -an (again a space between "t" and "-an")

this will list all connections in numerical form, which makes it a lot easier to trace malicious users....Hostnames can be a little confusing if you don't know what you're doing (although they're easily understandable, as we shall see later). Also, by doing this, you can also find out what your own IP address is, which is always useful.

It wud look a bit like this
Proto.....Local Address.....Foreign Address.....State
TCP....... stening
TCP....... stening
TCP.......Your IP:Port......
TCP.......Your IP:Port......A New IP:Port.......Established

A New IP:Port -note that stuff
Now that u have a IP Addess and a host name,type
tracert type IP address/Hostname here

write whole thing there.. thats after u write tracert give a space then type A New IP we found in last step.. give a / then write..Host name we found in first step.remember no port there to be added..
This will trace the lamer which is prolly using a trojan on ur computer to do what he wants..result will give u some ip addresses ..note all of them
now go to
write ip addresses in the box and see where the ips belong to..some ips will give u ISPs like mtnl ... last ip wud be his ip call ur or his ISP & inform dem abt it!

PDF Trick

Now u can listen to wats there in a pdf document instead of reading the whole document....
Try out the following key

combinations for Acrobat 6.0 & 7.0:
- ctrl+ shift + b ---> To hear the whole document
ctrl + shift + v ---> To hear only the page
ctrl + shift + c ---> To resume
ctrl + shift + e ---> To stop

Rename recycle bin

Trick: Rename recycle binTo change the name of the Recycle Bin desktop icon, click Start then goto Run, write Regedit and press Enter. It opens Registry Editor. Now in Registry Editor go to:

and change the name "Recycle Bin" to whatever you want (don't type any quotes).

Shortcuts for Mozilla Firefox

CTRL + A Select all text on a webpage
CTRL + B Open the Bookmarks sidebar
CTRL + C Copy the selected text to the Windows clipboard
CTRL + D Bookmark the current webpage
CTRL + F Find text within the current webpage
CTRL + G Find more text within the same webpage
CTRL + H Opens the webpage History sidebar
CTRL + I Open the Bookmarks sidebar
CTRL + J Opens the Download Dialogue Box
CTRL + K Places the cursor in the Web Search box ready to type your search
CTRL + L Places the cursor into the URL box ready to type a website address
CTRL + M Opens your mail program (if you have one) to create a new email message
CTRL + N Opens a new Firefox window
CTRL + O Open a local file
CTRL + P Print the current webpage
CTRL + R Reloads the current webpage
CTRL + S Save the current webpage on your PC
CTRL + T Opens a new Firefox Tab
CTRL + U View the page source of the current webpage
CTRL + V Paste the contents of the Windows clipboard
CTRL + W Closes the current Firefox Tab or Window (if more than one tab is open)
CTRL + X Cut the selected text
CTRL + Z Undo the last action

Windows Keyboard Shortcuts for Mozilla Firefox
F1 Opens Firefox help
F3 Find more text within the same webpage
F5 Reload the current webpage
F6 Toggles the cursor between the address/URL input box and the current webpage
F7 Toggles Caret Browsing on and off. Used to be able to select text on a webpage with the keyboard
F11 Switch to Full Screen mode

Amazing Google Trick To Find Private Pictures

Maybe you are a "voyeur".

Maybe you need some pictures for your school work.

Of course you can go to a dedicated website where you can find lot of free pictures.

But you can also dig some private pictures directories.

Try this little code in Google, you may find lot of Non public pictures
intitle:index.of +"Indexed by Apache::Gallery"
You can also narow your search by adding a word at the end, for example:
intitle:index.of +"Indexed by Apache::Gallery" +dbilla
Maybe some of you guys use Apache Gallery for your own private pictures.

If you want to verify if your own private pictures ares indexed, just paste this code in Google.
www.YourSite intitle:index.of +"Indexed by Apache::Gallery"
(Replace YourSite by the server hosting your pictures (your URL.)

Quote: intitle:index.of +"Indexed by Apache::Gallery"

Create desktop icon for restart and shutdown

Do the following:
1. Right click on your desktop
2. Then in NEW click on SHORTCUT
3. A shortcut wizard will appear
4. Type this in the box:
shutdown -s -t 00
5. Your done now right click on the folder>properties>Change Icon
And then choose any appropriate icon
For restart instead of -s type -r

Skip registering on sites

So sometimes u r to lazy to login or u forget password and u quick need some information.

So good way is faking UA <- User Agent

I will show u example of firefox

Type in URL bar following:

about :config

then u should see alot of options which can be changed

1cm down u will see "Filter:"

Type in box

"useranget" without quotes

We need to change just


Deafult is Firefox x.x.x or something like that^^

So how to bypass login on that websites(also on h4cky0u)?

just double click & type in that field

Code: Select all
Googlebot/2.X (

So websites will think u r google bot and allow u searching on website without login

View the Contents of Zip/Rar file before Downloading

Most of the files we download from the Internet are in Zip or Rar format. We wouldn’t like if we download an archive to find that the file we are looking for is not there. And it is also such a waste of Bandwidth and time to download a whole archive just for a single file. Archview is a Firefox addon that lets you preview the contents of an Archive before downloading. And using it you can even download a single file from the archive.

Currently it supports only RAR, ZIP and ISO format but that should be enough as they are the 2 most popular and common formats being used today. Archview adds itself to the stats bar and becomes active when the user clicks on a zip or rar link. It displays the contents almost instantly and presents the files of the archive in an XML or HTML interface. And what’s more, it even lets you download individual files for an archive, now no need to download a 10 MB archive for a file of 100 Kb that is inside.
The future version will also add support for the 7z format. It supports Firefox 2 and Firefox 3. It is definitely a great add on that can save you a lot of bandwidth.


Three things that even Microsoft can't explain!


An Indian found that nobody can create a FOLDER anywhere on the Computer which can be named as "CON". This is something funny and inexplicable… At Microsoft the whole Team, couldn't answer why this happened!

For those of you using Windows, do the following:
1.) Open an empty notepad file
2.) Type "Bush hid the facts" (without the quotes)
3.) Save it as whatever you want.
4.) Close it, and re-open it.
Noticed the weird bug? No one can explain!

Again this is something funny and can't be explained… At Microsoft the whole Team, including Bill Gates, couldn't answer why this happened!
It was discovered by a Brazilian. Try it out yourself…
Open Microsoft Word and type
=rand (200, 99)
And then press ENTER
And see the magic…..!

explanation magic 1:
Not only "CON",try creating folders like "LPT1","LPT2"...
CON, PRN, LPT13 are standard strings reserved by windows, hence you cant use them as folder names
Who told u that MS cant xplain it?

"CON" was basically use in old DOS versions for "Console"

How To Trace An Email Sender From The Email Header, TRICK!!!!!!!!

Here I shall discuss, how to trace an email sender from the email header. I shall take my MSN account as an example. But before I go into depth I shall split the email header and explain each one of them for better understanding.
Viewing Email Header
Every e-mail comes with information attached to it that tells the recipient of its history. This information called a header. The above is the Full header of email .All this information comes with the email. The header contains the information essential to tracing an e-mail. The main components to look for in the header are the lines beginning with "From:" and "Received:" However, it might be instructive to look at what various different lines in the header mean.

MIME-Version: 1.0
Received: from ([]) by with Microsoft SMTPSVC(5.0.2195.6713); Tue, 25 Nov 2003 19:56:18 -0800
Received: from pavilion ([]) by (rwcrmhc11) with SMTP id <20031126034457013001nk6pe>; Wed, 26 Nov 2003 03:44:57 +0000
X-Message-Info: JGTYoYF78jGkTvdOiviUvHyY85nt7iLD
Message-ID: <000801c3b3cf$a92237a0$>
X-Priority: 3
X-MSMail-Priority: Normal
X-Mailer: Microsoft Outlook Express 6.00.2800.1106
Disposition-Notification-To: "Leona"
X-MimeOLE: Produced By Microsoft MimeOLE V6.00.2800.1106
X-OriginalArrivalTime: 26 Nov 2003 03:56:18.0897 (UTC) FILETIME=[3F5AFC10:01C3B3D1]

Some e-mail programs, like Yahoo or Hotmail, have their full headers hidden by default In order to view the full header, you must specifically turn on that option. Some ways of doing this in different e-mail programs follow here:

Viewing full Header in Yahoo and Hotmail

Click Options -> Click Mail Preferences -> Click Show Headers -> Click "All" -> Click "Save"


Click Options -> Click Mail Display Headings (under "Additional Options") -> Click Message Headers -> Click "Full" ->

Click "OK"

Viewing full Header in Email Clients like (Outlook and Eudora etc)
Outlook Express
If you use OE, at least the version I have (5.5), you may not have much luck; it sometimes gives little more information than what you can see in the main window. But here's the application path anyway:
Click File/Properties/Details to find the header information.

First, highlight the email in your Incoming window, right-click on it, and select Options. The window that comes up will have the headers at the bottom.

Be sure the message is open, then Click the 'Blah, Blah, Blah' button from the Tool Bar, and the headers will appear.

Select Reader/Show All Headers/

Netscape Mail
Select Options/Headers/Show All Headers

Netscape Messenger 4.0 and 4.5
Select View/Headers/All

Now I will discuss the full header in detail:

Message ID:
It is used to identify the system from which the the message has originated (i.e. from the system the sender has logged in). However, this is too easy to forge, and is consequently not reliable.


X- headers are user defined headers. They are inserted by email client programs or applications that use email. Here from the X- headers inserted into the email by the email client it is clear that the sender has used Microsoft Outlook Express 6.00.2800.1106 to send this email.

X-Priority: 3
X-MSMail-Priority: Normal
X-Mailer: Microsoft Outlook Express 6.00.2800.1106

MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension. It tells the recipient what types of attachments are included in email. It is a format that allows people to send attachments that do not contain Standard English Words, but rather graphics, sounds, and e-mails written with other characters. The Mime-Version field merely confirms that the version of MIME used corresponds to the standard version (which is currently 1.0).

Form is useless in tracing an e-mail. It consists of the email of the sender but this can be obviously be a fake. One can use any fake-mailer to fake the sender's name.

This line tells the receiving e-mail client exactly what MIME type or types are included in the e-mail message. If the Content–Type is text/plain; charset="us-ascii" just tells us that the message contains a regular text message that uses English characters. ASCII is the American Standard Code for Information Interchange and is the system used to convert numbers to English characters.

It is the address to which your return e-mail will be sent. Different e-mail programs use other variations of Return-Path:. These might include Return-Errors-To: or Reply-To etc.


This field is the key to find out the source of any e-mail. Like a regular letter, e-mails gets postmarked with information that tells where it has been. However, unlike a regular letter, an e-mail might get "postmarked" any number of times as it makes its way from its source through a number of mail transfer agents (MTAs). The MTAs are responsible for properly routing messages to their destination.

Let me strip-off the above email header to make the understanding easy. The header is splitted and the two received headers are given below.

Received Header 1: - Tue, 25 Nov 2003 19:56:18 -0800
from ([])
with Microsoft SMTPSVC(5.0.2195.6713)

Received Header 2: - Wed, 26 Nov 2003 03:44:57 +0000
from pavilion ([])
by (rwcrmhc11)
with SMTP
id <20031126034457013001nk6pe>

The MTAs are "stamped" on the e-mail's header so that the most recent MTA is listed on the top of the header and the first MTA through which the e-mail has passed in listed on the bottom of the header. In the above sample e-mail header, e-mail first passed through (, and at last made its way through (

In the Received Header 2, the one marked with red colour "pavilion" is either the domain name of the server from which the email has originated or the name of the computer from which the email has been sent. By doing a DNS query for "pavilion", it is confirmed that it is not a know host name hence, must be the name of the computer from which the mail has originated. "" is the IP address from which the mail might have originated or it is the IP address of the ISP (Internet Service Provider) to which the user was logged on while sending the mail.

Note: Correct me if I am wrong, most of the time "HELO" is prefixed to the system name from which the mail has originated, but its accuracy is not reliable.

Trace who owns the IP address
Every computers hooked on to internet is assigned with an IP address. Individual users possess a dynamic IP address when they logged on to any ISP to access internet. These IP addresses are assigned by the ISP itself. Organization usually possess static/public IP address which is stored in a database of registries.

There are three major registries covering different parts of the world. They are => American Registry of Internet Numbers (ARIN) : It assigns IP addresses for the Americas and for sub Saharan Africa. => Asia Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC) : It covers Asia => Réseaux IP Européens (RIPE NCC) : It covers Europe

Thus, to find out which organization owns a particular IP address, you can make a "WHOIS" query in the database at any of these registries. You do this by typing the IP address into the "WHOIS" box that appears on each of these websites.

"Received Header" will have the IP address of the ISP in case the users has dialed up to the ISP while sending the email. But if the user has send the email from within the corporate then the corporate public/static IP address is logged.

By giving a "WHOIS" query for at, the following result has been displayed:

Comcast Cable Communications, Inc. JUMPSTART-1 (NET-68-32-0-0-1) -
Comcast Cable Communications, Inc. NJ-NORTH-14 (NET-68-37-16-0-1) -

# ARIN WHOIS database, last updated 2004-02-04 19:15
# Enter ? for additional hints on searching ARIN's WHOIS database.

From above queries it is found that the IP address ( is owned "Comcast". By making further queries on "Comcast" it is found that it is the name of the ISP located in NJ, US - 08002. The result of further query is given below:

OrgName: Comcast Cable Communications, Inc.
Address: 3 Executive Campus
Address: 5th Floor
City: Cherry Hill
StateProv: NJ
Country: US

NetRange: -
NetHandle: NET-68-32-0-0-1
Parent: NET-68-0-0-0-0
NetType: Direct Allocation
RegDate: 2001-11-29
Updated: 2003-11-05

TechHandle: IC161-ARIN
TechName: Comcast Cable Communications Inc
TechPhone: +1-856-317-7200

OrgAbuseHandle: NAPO-ARIN
OrgAbuseName: Network Abuse and Policy Observance
OrgAbusePhone: +1-856-317-7272

OrgTechHandle: IC161-ARIN
OrgTechName: Comcast Cable Communications Inc
OrgTechPhone: +1-856-317-7200

# ARIN WHOIS database, last updated 2004-02-04 19:15
# Enter ? for additional hints on searching ARIN's WHOIS database.

Now since the IP address found belongs to an ISP, it is clear that the sender has dialed up to this ISP while sending the email. For further enquiry we can then request the ISP to provide us with details of the user who has dialed up to them at that given point of time (Wed, 26 Nov 2003 03:44:57 +0000). If the ISP cooperates, they will check their user and message logs to see who was logged into that particular IP address at that time and date. This will reveals the sender's telephone number from which he/she has dialed to the ISP. Now once we have the telephone number we can easily retrieve the name and address of the sender.

Now the above case is solved but there are also other cases where the IP address found on the email header may be owned by an organisation or a cyber cafe. Below I have discussed how you can trace the sender in both of these cases.


But in case the IP address found belongs to an organisation then you have to request them to provide information about the user who has send the mail from within the organisation network. They must have user and message logs on their firewall / proxy and can trace each of their computers connected at the given point of time. By supplying the organisation with the e-mail header of the offending e-mail, they can check these logs and hopefully produce information of the user of that machine.


In case it is found that the sender has sent the email from a cyber-cafe then it becomes a difficult task to trace him/her. The user may not be a frequent visitor to that cyber-cafe. But let's assume that you receive such mails frequently from that particular cyber-cafe then you can install "key-loggers" in the computers at the cafe. These programs records user's keystrokes, thus creating a record of everything that was typed at a particular terminal. By reviewing the key-logger logs you may be able to trace the sender in this case.

Note: These methods would aid greatly in identifying an e-mail sender, they also would impinge on the rights of others using the computers to conduct their personal business. Such a conflict defines the ongoing struggle between the fight against terrorism over the Internet and the right to privacy, which will continue to evolve in the years ahead.

File extensions and their meaning!!!

.A Assembly source code
.ABK CorelDRAW AutoBackup file
.ACL CorelDRAW 6 keyboard accelerator
.ACM Audio Compression Module (add-on to MSACM.DRV Windows audio driver)
.AD Library module for After Dark screensaver
.ADF Adapter Description file
.ADL MicroChannel Adapter Description Library file
.ADM After Dark MultiModule screensaver
.ADR After Dark Randomizer screensaver
.AFM Adobe Font Metrics
.AI Adobe Illustrator drawing
.AIF Apple Mac AIFF sound
.ALB JASC Image Commander album
.ALL Arts & Letters Library
.AND Add In Utility
.ANI Animated Cursor
.ANN Annotations
.ANS ANSI text
.APL APL workspace
.APP Application
.ARC LH ARC (old version) compressed archive file
.ARJ Robert Jung ARJ compressed archive file
.ART Xara Studio drawing
.ASD WinWord AutoSave
.ASM Assembly source code
.ASP Active Server Page
.ATT AT&T Group 4 bitmap file
.AUX Auxiliary file
.AVI Mcft Audio Video Interleave (Video for Windows)
.AWD FaxView document

.B BASIC source code
.B4 Helix Nuts and Bolts file
.BAK Backup file
.BAS BASIC source code
.BAT Batch file
.BBL Bibliography file
.BFC Windows 95 Briefcase document
.BG Backgammon for Windows game
.BGI Borland Graphic Interface
.BI Binary file
.BIB Bibliography file
.BIN Binary file
.BK! Backup file
.BLD BASIC Bload data
.BM1 Apogee BioMenace data file
.BMK Bookmark file
.BMP OS/2 or Windows bitmap file
.BNK Ad-lib Instrument ID file
.BS1 Apogee Blake Stone data file
.BSC Boyan Script
.BSV BASIC Bsave data

.C C source code
.CAL Calendar schedule data
.CAT Catalog file
.CB Mcft clean boot file
.CBK Wave Blaster sound bank file (alternate sets of sounds and instruments)
.CBL Cobol source code
.CC C/C++ source code
.CCB Visual Basic Animated Button configuration
.CCH Corel Chart
.CDA CD Audio Track
.CDF Comma delimited format
.CDR CorelDRAW picture
.CDT CorelDRAW template
.CDX CorelDRAW compressed drawing
.CFG Configuration file
.CGM Computer Graphics metafile
.CHK CHKDSK information
.CHP Ventura Publisher chapter
.CIL Clip Gallery download package
.CK1 iD/Apogee Commander Keen 1 data file
.CK2 iD/Apogee Commander Keen 2 data file
.CK3 iD/Apogee Commander Keen 3 data file
.CK4 iD/Apogee Commander Keen 4 data file
.CK5 iD/Apogee Commander Keen 5 data file
.CK6 iD/Apogee Commander Keen 6 data file
.CLI Aldus Photostyler clipboard file
.CLP Mcft Windows clipboard viewer data file
.CLS Visual Basic Class Module
.CMD Command file
.CMF Corel metafile
.CMF Creative Music file (a Creative Labs format for the Sound Blaster)
.CMP Address document
.CMP JPEG Bitmap
.CMV Corel Move animation
.CMX Corel Presentation Exchange image
.CNF Configuration file
.CNQ Compuworks Design Shop file
.COB Cobol source code
.COD Code file
.COM Command file (program)
.CPD Fax Cover document
.CPE Fax Cover document
.CPI Character Pixel Information
.CPI Code Page Information
.CPL Control Panel item
.CPL Corel Color palette
.CPP C++ source code
.CPR Corel Presents Presentation
.CPT Corel PHOTO-PAINT image
.CPX Corel Presentation Exchange compressed drawing
.CRD Cardfile file
.CRP Corel Presents Run-Time Presentation
.CRT Certificate file
.CSC Corel Script
.CSP PC Emcee On-Screen image
.CSV Comma delimited text
.CT Scitex CT Bitmap
.CUE Mcft Cue Cards data
.CUR Windows Cursor file
.CUT Dr Halo bitmap
.CV Corel Versions archive
.CVF Compressed Volume File

.DAT Data file
.DAT WordPerfect Merge Data
.DBF Ashton-Tate dBASE database
.DBG Debug info
.DBX DataBeam image
.DCS Desktop Color Separation file
.DCT Dictionary file
.DCX Fax image (based on PCX)
.DDE Interprocess communications (IPC) protocol to support exchange of commands and data
.DDF BTRIEVE database
.DEF C++ Definition file
.DEF Defaults file
.DEF SmartWare II data file
.DEM Demo file
.DER Certificate file
.DES Description file
.DIB Device Independent Bitmap (a graphics format)
.DIC Dictionary file
.DIF Data Interchange Format spreadsheet
.DIF Difference file
.DIR Directory file
.DLG C++ Dialogue Script
.DLL Dynamic Link Library (executable code module for Windows)
.DOC Mcft Word document
.DOC WordPerfect document
.DOC WordStar document
.DOT Mcft Word document template
.DRS Driver Resource file
.DRV Driver files for Windows
.DRW Drawing file
.DRW Micrografx Designer/Draw
.DSC Description file
.DSQ Corel QUERY file
.DTA Data file
.DVR Device driver file
.DWG AutoCAD drawing
.DXF AutoDesk Drawing Interchange Format

.EMF Enhanced Windows metafile
.EML E-Mail file
.ENC Encoded
.EPS Encapsulated PostScript image
.EVY Envoy document
.EWL Mcft Encarta document
.EXE Executable file (program)

.FAV Mcft Outlook navigation bar
.FAX Fax bitmaps in CCITT format
.FAX FAX Type image
.FH3 Aldus Freehand 3 drawing
.FLC Autodesk hi-resolution animation file
.FLI An animation (flick) file format created using Autodesk Animator
.FLT Filter file: a DLL used by Corel, or for Aldus and Winword for import
.FMT Mcft Schedule+ print file
.FOG Fontographer font
.FON System font
.FOR Fortran source code
.FOT Font-related file
.FP FileMaker Pro file
.FP1 Flying Pigs for Windows data file
.FP3 FileMaker Pro file
.FPX FlashPix bitmap
.FRM Generic form file
.FRM Visual Basic form
.FRM WordPerfect Merge Form
.FRX Visual Basic form stash file

.GAL Corel Multimedia Manager album
.GED Graphic Environment Document (drawing)
.GEM GEM metafile
.GEN Ventura-generated text file
.GFI Genigraphics Graphics Link presentation
.GFX Genigraphics Graphics Link presentation
.GFX Instant Artist graphics file
.GID Windows 95 global index file (containing help status)
.GIF Graphic Interchange Format (CompuServe bitmap)
.GIM Genigraphics Graphics Link presentation
.GIX Genigraphics Graphics Link presentation
.GLY Glossary file
.GNA Genigraphics Graphics Link presentation
.GNX Genigraphics Graphics Link presentation
.GRA Mcft Graph
.GRF Graph file
.GRP Windows Program Manager Group
.GWX Genigraphics Graphics Link presentation
.GWZ Genigraphics Graphics Link presentation
.GZ Unix Gzip compressed file

.H C program header
.HED HighEdit document
.HEL Mcft Hellbender saved game
.HEX Macintosh BinHex 2.0 file
.HGL HP Graphics Language drawing
.HLP Help file
.HPJ Visual Basic Help Project
.HPP C++ program header
.HQX Macintosh BinHex 4.0 file
.HST History file
.HST Host file
.HT HyperTerminal file
.HTM Hypertext document file
.HTML Hypertext document file

.IBK Instrument Bank file for the FM chip, specifying parameters for a particular sound
.ICB Targa bitmap
.ICO Windows Icon file
.IDD MIDI Instrument Definition
.IDX Index file
.IFF Amiga ILBM file
.IGF Inset Systems metafile
.IIF QuickBooks for Windows interchange file
.IMA WinImage file
.IMG GEM bitmapped graphics file
.INF Windows application Setup information files
.INI Windows initialization files that define your Windows environment
.INS X-Internet sign-up file
.ISP X-Internet sign-up file
.IW Idlewild screensaver

.JFF JPEG bitmap
.JFIF JPEG File Interchange Format
.JIF JPEG bitmap
.JN1 Epic MegaGames Jill of the Jungle data file
.JNK Junk
.JPEG JPEG bitmap
.JPG JPEG bitmap
.JTF JPEG bitmap

.KDC Kodak Photo-Enhancer
.KFX KoFax Group 4 image
.KIF Knowledge Interchange Format
.KYE Kye game data

.LBM Deluxe Paint bitmap
.LBR Library file
.LDB Mcft Access lock file
.LEG Legacy document
.LET Letter file
.LIB Library file
.LOG Log file
.LPD Helix Nuts and Bolts file
.LRC Intel Video Phone file
.LRS Language Resource file
.LST List file
.LZH LH ARC compressed archive
.LZS Skyroads data file

.M3D Corel Motion 3D animation
.MAC MacPaint bitmap format
.MAC Macro file
.MAD Mcft Access Module
.MAF Mcft Access Form
.MAI Mail
.MAK Visual Basic or MS Visual C++ Project
.MAM Mcft Access Macro
.MAP LInk MAP file
.MAQ Mcft Access Query
.MAR Mcft Access Report
.MAT Mcft Access Table
.MAZ Hover maze data
.MB1 Apogee Monster Bash data file
.MCC Dialer10 calling card
.MCS MathCAD image
.MCW Mcft Word for Macintosh document
.MDA Mcft Access add-in
.MDE Mcft Access MDE file
.MDF Menu Definition File
.MDN Mcft Access blank database template
.MDW Mcft Access Workgroup
.MDZ Mcft Access wizard template
.ME Information file (i.e., READ.ME), typically in text format
.MEN Menu file
.MET Presentation Manager metafile
.MI Miscellaneous
.MIC Mcft Image Composer file
.MID MIDI music file
.MMF Mcft Mail File
.MMM Mcft Multimedia Movie
.MNU Menu file
.MOD A sound file format used with Amiga systems
.MOD Mcft Multiplan spreadsheet
.MOV QuickTime for Windows movie
.MPE MPEG animation
.MPEG MPEG animation
.MPG MPEG animation
.MSD Mcft Diagnostics report file
.MSG Mcft Mail message
.MSN Mcft Network document
.MSP Mcft Paint bitmap
.MUS Music file
.MVB Mcft Multimedia Viewer file

.NAP NAP metafile vector image
.NDX Index file
.NEW New file
.NFO Information file

.OBD Mcft Office Binder or template
.OBJ Object file
.OBZ Mcft Office Binder wizard
.OCX Visual Basic custom control
.OFN Mcft Office File New file
.OFT Mcft Outlook template
.OLB OLE Object Library
.OLD Old file (i.e. CONFIG.OLD)
.OLE OLE object
.OPT Options file
.ORG Organizer file
.ORI Original
.OUT Outline file
.OVL Overlay file
.OVR Overlay file

.P10 Tektronix Plot 10 drawing
.P65 Pagemaker 6.5 file
.PAB Mcft Personal Address Book
.PAK Packed file
.PAL Palette file; used by many programs, generally each with their own format
.PAS Pascal source code
.PAT Corel Draw pattern
.PAT Patch file
.PBK Mcft Phonebook
.PBM Portable bitmap file
.PCD Kodak Photo CD file
.PCL HP Laserjet bitmap
.PCS PICS animation file
.PCT Macintosh PICT drawing
.PCX Zsoft PC Paintbrush picture file
.PDF Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format
.PDX Paradox file
.PFA Type 1 font (ASCII)
.PFB Type 1 font (binary)
.PFC PF Component
.PFM Printer Font Metrics
.PGL HP Plotter drawing
.PGM Portable Graymap (bitmap)
.PGP Program Parameter
.PHO Phone list file
.PIC Lotus picture/Macintosh drawing/PC Paint bitmap
.PIF Program Information File containing information about a non-Windows application
.PIX Inset Systems bitmap
.PLL Pre-Linked Library file
.PLT AutoCAD Plot drawing
.PLT HPGL Plotter drawing
.PM5 Pagemaker 5.0 file
.PM6 Pagemaker 6.0 file
.PNG Paint Shop Pro Browser catalog
.PNG Portable Network Graphics bitmap
.PNT MacPaint graphic file
.POT Mcft PowerPoint template
.PP4 Picture Publisher 4 bitmap
.PPA Mcft PowerPoint add-in
.PPM Portable Pixelmap bitmap
.PPS Mcft PowerPoint slide show
.PPT Mcft PowerPoint presentation
.PRD Printer driver file
.PRE Lotus Freelance presentation
.PRF Windows Preferences file
.PRG Program file
.PRN Print Table (space delimited text)
.PRS Harvard Graphics for Windows presentation
.PS PostScript file
.PSD Adobe Photoshop bitmap
.PST Mcft Outlook Personal Folder file
.PUB Mcft Publisher publication file
.PUB Ventura Publisher publication file
.PWD Mcft Pocket Word document
.PWZ Mcft PowerPoint Wizard
.PXL Mcft Pocket Excel spreadsheet

.QAD QuickArt document file
.QBW QuickBooks for Windows file
.QLB Quick Library file
.QRY Mcft Query file
.QT QuickTime Movie format
.QTM QuickTime Movie format

.RA Real Audio sound
.RAM Real Audio sound
.RAS Sun Raster Images bitmap
.RAW Raw file format (bitmap)
.RC Mcft Visual C++ Resource Script
.REC Recording file
.REF Reference file
.REG Registration file
.RES Mcft Visual C++ Resource
.RLE Run Length Encoding for compressed bitmap files
.RMI Windows alternate MIDI synthesized sound format
.ROL Adlib sound file format
.ROV Rescure Rover data file
.RPT Mcft Visual Basic Crystal Reports file
.RTF Rich Text Format document

.SAM Ami Professional document file
.SAV Saved file (i.e., saved game)
.SBI Sound Blaster Instrument file
.SBK AWE-32 Sound Bank file containing alternate sets of sounds and instruments
.SC2 Mcft Schedule+ 7
.SCD Matrix/Imapro file
.SCD Mcft Schedule+ 7
.SCH Mcft Schedule+ 1
.SCO DL slide image file
.SCP Dial-Up Networking Script
.SCR Fax image file
.SCR Script file, screen saver, or screen capture
.SCT Scitex CT bitmap file
.SDF Standard Data Format
.SDL SmartDraw library file
.SDR SmartDraw drawing
.SDT SmartDraw template
.SEP Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) bitmap
.SHB Corel Show presentation
.SHB Document shortcut file
.SHG Hotspot bitmap file
.SHS Shell scrap file
.SHW Corel Show presentation file
.SLK Symbolic Link (SYLK) spreadsheet
.SMM Lotus AmiPro spreadsheet file
.SND Raw sound file format—also a sound file used in Mac systems
.SND Mac Sound Resource file
.SND NeXT sound file
.SPL Spell checker
.STY Ventura style sheet file
.SUP Supplemental file
.SVX Amiga 8 sound file
.SWP Swap file
.SYM Symbol file
.SYS System device driver (such as HIMEM.SYS)

.TAR Tape Archive file
.TAZ UNIX Gzip/Tape Archive file
.TBX Toolbox file
.TDF Trace Definition File
.TDF Typeface Definition File
.TEX Texture file
.TFM Tagged Font Metric
.TGA Targa “Tru Color” bitmapped format
.TGZ UNIX Gzip/Tape Archive file
.THD Thread
.THN Graphics Workshop for Windows thumbnail
.THS Thesaurus
.TIF Tagged Image Format
.TIG Tiger file—used by U.S. government to distribute maps
.TLB OLE Type Library
.TMP Windows temporary file
.TRM Terminal file
.TST Test file
.TTF TrueType Font file
.TWF TabWorks file
.TWW Tagwrite template file
.TX8 MS-DOS text file
.TXT Generic text (ASCII) format

.VBP Visual Basic Project
.VBX Visual Basic Extension or custom control
.VBS Virtual Basic script file
.VDA Targa bitmap
.VLB Corel Ventura Library
.VOC Creative voice file created with a Sound Blaster card
.VP Ventura Publisher publication
.VST Targa bitmap
.VSW Visio Workspace file
.VXD Windows virtual device driver file

.WAV Windows waveform audio file
.WB1 QuattroPro for Windows spreadsheet
.WB2 QuattroPro for Windows spreadsheet
.WBK Mcft Word Backup
.WBL Argo WebLoad II upload file
.WCM WordPerfect Macro
.WDB Mcft Works database
.WEB CorelXara Web document
.WGP Wild Board Games data file
.WID Ventura width table
.WIL WinImage file
.WIZ Mcft Word Wizard
.WK1 Lotus 123 versions 1 & 2 spreadsheet
.WK3 Lotus 123 version 3 spreadsheet
.WK4 Lotus 123 version 4 spreadsheet
.WKS Lotus 123 Worksheet spreadsheet
.WKS Mcft Works document
.WLF Argo WebLoad I upload file
.WLL Mcft Word add-In
.WMF Windows metafile vector graphics format
.WP WordPerfect document
.WP4 WordPerfect 4 document
.WP5 WordPerfect 5 document
.WP6 WordPerfect 6 document
.WPD WordPerfect demo
.WPD WordPerfect document
.WPG WordPerfect graphic
.WPS Mcft Works document
.WPT WordPerfect template
.WPW Novel PerfectWorks document
.WQ1 QuattroPro/DOS spreadsheet
.WQ2 QuattroPro/DOS version 5 spreadsheet
.WRI Write document file
.WRL Virtual reality model
.WS1 WordStar for Windows 1 document
.WS2 WordStar for Windows 2 document
.WS3 WordStar for Windows 3 document
.WS4 WordStar for Windows 4 document
.WS5 WordStar for Windows 5 document
.WS6 WordStar for Windows 6 document
.WS7 WordStar for Windows 7 document
.WSD WordStar 2000 document
.WVL Wavelet compressed bitmap file

.XAR Corel Xara drawing
.XLA Mcft Excel add-in
.XLB Mcft Excel toolbar
.XLC Mcft Excel chart
.XLD Mcft Excel dialog
.XLK Mcft Excel backup
.XLM Mcft Excel macro
.XLS Mcft Excel worksheet
.XLT Mcft Excel template
.XLV Mcft Excel VBA module
.XLW Mcft Excel workbook/workspace
.XML Extensible Markup Language files
.XR1 Epic MegaGames Xargon data file
.XTP XTree data file
.XY3 XYWrite III document
.XY4 XYWrite IV document
.XYP XYWrite III Plus document
.XYW XYWrite for Windows 4.0 document

.YAL Arts & Letters clipart library
.YBK Mcft Encarta Yearbook

.Z UNIX Gzip (compressed)
.ZIP PKZIP archive file
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